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New DCDC Red Teaming Guide (January 2013)

The UK Developments, Concepts and Doctrine Centre published Edition 2 of its Red Teaming Guide in January 2013. This is unclassified and available here

Red Teaming is a discrete but related technique to Course of Action (COA) Wargaming. They are often confused, as are COA Wargaming and Rehearsal of Concept (ROC) Drills. The table below sums up the differences. Needless to say, any practitioner of professional wargaming should be conversant with all three techniques.







COA Wargaming

A systematic method of analysing a plan to visualise the ebb and flow of an operation or campaign

To identify risks and areas of weakness in a forming plan

Chief Controller (e.g. COS, Bn 2ic)

Blue Team

Red Cell

Staff branches




(Red Team)[3]

During any or all of:

1. COA development

2. COA evaluation

3. COA refinement

ROC Drill

A visual, sequenced rehearsal of a plan

To enhance understanding of a formed plan


Chief Controller

Staff branches

Unit/sub-unit commanders


After orders have been delivered


The provision of honest, constructive and objective criticism to improve a commander’s decision-making

To challenge assumptions and fully explore alternative outcomes to reduce threats and increase opportunities

An independently constituted group of SMEs with appropriate skills for the project under consideration

Throughout the estimate/7 Questions process

[1] If available

[2] If desirable

[3] If formed

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